Babir Journal   |  e-ISSN: 2687-4881

Volume 2 Issue 2 (May 2020)

Issue Information

Issue Information

Issue Information

pp. i - vi


Keywords: Issue Information

Original articles

African Eco-Feminism: Bessie Head’s When Rain Clouds Gather

Zaid Ibrahim Ismael & Sabah Atallah Khalifa Ali

pp. 1 - 8   |  DOI: 10.29329/babir.2020.244.1


The twentieth century marked an increase in Eco-feminist writings. The Industrial Revolution polluted the environment and heightened the competition among the capitalist individuals and companies which reached unprecedented levels at the end of the century. Even in the developing nations and districts, in Africa and elsewhere, in which the people once lived an eco-friendly life, the population compete to increase their profits, overlooking the harm they are doing to nature. Feminist writers found an affinity between their suffering and that of the natural world. Both have been exploited by the patriarchal system. South African novelist Bessie Head was one of the early authors who devoted her writings to educate her native people about the right methods that preserve the environment. This research focuses on Head’s debut novel When rain clouds gather, published in 1969. It deals with the novelist’s eco-feminist views during this turbulent era in South-African history, namely in Botswana before the region gained independence from South Africa.

Keywords: Apartheid, Eco-feminism, environment, Head, South African.

The Role Of Digital Visual Media In Spreading Hate Speech Among Iraqi Youth: An Empirical Study

Adel Abdul-Razzaq Mastaf

pp. 9 - 28   |  DOI: 10.29329/babir.2020.244.2


Today we find that the media of various kinds and forms share common characteristics, or are closely related to a large extent. For example, all of them have become digitally used, and the citizen has become a role through the spread of the concept (citizen journalism) as well as the isolation of the user and its role in dispersing the public and satisfying its needs. New forms of digital media emerged that were initially working to regroup the media content of traditional media (text, pictures, movies, video clips, etc.) until today they are producing new content for them.  The research problem crystallizes in answering the following main question (What is the role of digital visual media in spreading hate speech among Iraqi youth)? And knowing the extent of the effectiveness of digital visual media in making the future no longer a negative future. Rather, everyone who browses the Internet can formulate a visual communication message and broadcast it immediately through the internet sites. Thus, the Internet has become the most prominent medium in the components of the new communication process.

Keywords: Digital visual Media, Hate speech, Iraqi youth.

The External Factors In Mauritania and Libya and The Democratic Transition Experience

Boune Oueld Bahe & Mohamed Salem Ershida

pp. 29 - 46   |  DOI: 10.29329/babir.2020.244.3


This study deals with the impact of foreign intervention on the impediment of the democratic transition in Mauritania and Libya. It seeks to trace back the historical conditions of the creation of modern nation-state in these two countries according to the plans of the colonial powers and how these plans resulted into a big shock to the state and the society. This led to a series of coup d’états in Mauritania and the creation of the revolutionary commissions Libya. Although both countries have earlier witnessed a constitutional experience that insisted on the implementation of democracy, the time duration to practice it was not long enough due to the intervention of the army in power. But the outcomes of this study have given much significance to the role of regional and international intervention in these both countries. However, with the popular revolution in Libya that took place in Libya in 2011 and with demonstrations in Mauritania following the Arab spring, there was some hope for demotic transition in these countries.

Keywords: External factors, Mauritania, Libya, Democratic Transition.

Consciously Using Flowers And Ornamental Plants And Its Effect On Improving The Internal Environment Of The Residence

Wijdan Abdulrahman Al Owda

pp. 47 - 65   |  DOI: 10.29329/babir.2020.244.4


The research aims to study the Awareness of using flowers and ornamental plants and its impact on improving the internal environment of the housing through the study of different themes of awareness using flowers, ornamental plants represented in awareness of (types of flowers and plants, using of flowers and natural plant, using of flowers and industrial plants, methods of  care of flowers and plants), as well as the study of the internal environment of housing in terms of (Aesthetic and Psychological ), also aims to identify the awareness of using flowers and ornamental plants and its impact on the internal environment of the housing according to the educational level of the housewife and monthly income of the family and to identify the similarities and differences between working and non-working women in the awareness of using flowers and ornamental plants and its impact on the internal environment of the housing. Research has been applied to 250 of the working and non-working women in the city of Riyadh, the study tools included form of the preliminary data of the family which serve the objectives of the study including: education level of the housewife, seeking of the housewife for work, the monthly income of the family, and a questionnaire for internal environment of the housing. One of the most important results of the study is the presence of a positive correlative relationship between using of flowers, ornamental plants and improvement of the internal environment of the housing at a significance level  0.01, as well as the presence of statistically significant difference between the study sample in using of flowers and ornamental plants, according to the educational level of the housewife at the level of 0.001, also there is statistically significant difference between the study sample in improving the internal environment of the housing, according to the educational level the housewife at the level of 0.01, and the presence of statistically significant difference between the study sample in using of flowers and ornamental plants, according to the monthly income of the family at the level of 0.001, also it is clear  the presence statistically significant difference between the study sample in improving the internal environment of the housing, according the monthly income of the family at the level of 0.01, and there are statistically significant differences between working and non- working housewives in using of flowers, ornamental plants and improvement of the internal environment of the housing at significance level of 0.001 in favor of the working housewives.

Keywords: Flowers, Ornamental plants, Internal environment.

Reflection As Indicated By The Holy Quran

Fatma Saad Al-Naimi

pp. 66 - 84   |  DOI: 10.29329/babir.2020.244.5


This research deals with some of what the apprentice needs for the Holy Qur’an, because the Qur’an is a cure for all psychiatric medications and ills. This is a fact pronounced by the wise reminder. And you will find what amazes you. Moreover, the one who meditates in the Book of God Almighty finds secrets in it that he knows only the one who masters his verses, and the one who contemplates the state of the nation today finds the desire to hear and recite it without reflecting and the work for which the Qur’an was revealed. Therefore, the research dealt with cognitive and methodological issues through his knowledge of the linguistic and idiomatic meanings of reflection, the terminology related to reflection and its equivalents, the difference between reflection and interpretation, and also talks about the disciplines of the methodology of reflection, the skills of reflection in the contemplation of the verses of the Holy Quran, and the verses mentioned in reflection, also the fruits and benefits Reflect on the Qur’an; the applied example from the life of the Prophet, may God bless him and grant him peace, in reflection, the effects and sayings of scholars and commentators mentioned in reflection.

Keywords: Reflection, Qur’an, Methodology.

The Impact Of The Renaissance On The Industrial Revolution In Britain In The 2nd Half Of The 18th Century

Amal Mohammed Saad Lnoor

pp. 85 - 108   |  DOI: 10.29329/babir.2020.244.6


There is no doubt that the contribution of the European Renaissance has a tremendous and great role in the industrial progress in Europe, as it was the result of the prosperity of traditional British industry and global trade that began from 177. until 183. This was due to the need for production means and tools that help meet the growing need in global markets whose needs have not been covered by the old traditional markets. The industrial revolution in Britain has constituted a major turning point in the history of mankind, through its reflection on the human society, which has become demanding change according to the possibilities that existed at that time. There is an acceleration in lifestyle especially industry, manufacturing and innovation, as the commercial revolution that occurred with geographical discoveries is the one that paved the way for the industrial revolution in Europe. The industrial revolution had economic, social, political and cultural valuable outcomes that led to the establishment of a capitalist economic system based on freedom of work and exchanges through technical and industrial inventions such as metal industries and steam machines and the emergence of productive institutions that contributed to economic development, which improved the living conditions of people and the urban movement flourished, the industrial & agricultural production increased, transportation, and banking. These effects were reflected in the old society and the emergence of two classes, the bourgeois class of the owners of industrial, commercial and banking institutions, and the working class of urban dwellers and those coming from the countryside. The impact of this revolution has spread to this day in light of the developments that followed the communications and information revolutions in the last quarter of the twentieth century in several subsequent stages in several names such as "the post-industrial phase" or "the information age" and "the age of globalization" and this stage was characterized from others of what we might call "the age of knowledge" because most of the most profitable and popular economic activities are based on manufacturing services, information and scientific knowledge.

Keywords: industrial revolution, renaissance, globalization.

The Interdependence Of Language And Identity In Azmena Ladha The Twenty God And Pomegranate Seeds

Wallada Abdul Razzaq Eyada & Zeena Salim Hammodi

pp. 109 - 116   |  DOI: 10.29329/babir.2020.244.7


Azmena Ladha is a contemporary Kenyan writer who is influenced by her experience of traveling between Kenya and England. Her short story Twenty God and Pomegranate Seeds, portrays the life of Kenyan family in the postcolonial period. Through her short story Ladha shows us the effect of the interaction between the British(colonizer) culture and Kenyan (colonized) culture. Moreover she uses the language skillfully to show the attitudes of the characters toward the British colonialism. Accordingly, Ladha shows us Beta's (the protagonist of the story) adherence to the Kenyan culture and her African roots through her insistence on using native words. While the opposite attitude of embracing and assimilating to the British culture is clearly expressed by Hassanalli (Beta's husband) and their daughter Najma. The study will shed light on the role of language to reflect the identity in postcolonial society and the use of different literary traditions which is part of this short story.

Keywords: Post Colonialism, Identity, Azmeena, Kenya, Ashcroft.

The Possibility Of Applying Basel 3 In Iraqi Banks (The National Bank As A Model)

Sajad Sadek Sadaa & Youssef Abdullah Abdul

pp. 117 - 134   |  DOI: 10.29329/babir.2020.244.8


In this research, we are trying to explain the new regulatory framework for Iraqi banks in the event of the implementation of the decisions of the Basel 3 agreement, especially since Iraq began with economic openness, financial liberalization, and a shift towards a market economy and entry into all international agreements, especially in the financial and banking field, so Basel 3 agreement was formed by the Basel Committee for Banking Supervision in order to Reducing exposure to banking risks to which banking and financial systems are exposed in all countries of the world. The research problem came from the limited commitment of Iraqi banks to the directions of international financial organizations, including the Basel 3 agreement, in order to develop their financial and banking performance. The research hypothesis was that there is a possibility to implement the (Basel 3) agreement in Iraqi banks, including the National Bank of Iraq, and that its commitment to implementation will lead to positive results in banking activity.

The research reached through the use of a descriptive analysis method of the financial statements of the National Bank of Iraq that it did not apply the (Basel 3) agreement, and that the commitment to the specific adequacy ratio will reduce the risks, while the effect of adequacy in liquidity will be positive, but it will have a negative impact on employment, financial leverage and profitability due to the disruption of part a lot of the bank’s money without investing it and achieving the desired profitability from it.

Keywords: Basel3, Iraqi banks, Banking and finance, Banking Control, Liquidity Indicators.

Analysis Of Sectorial Efficiency Trends For Agricultural Industries And Their Spatial Trends In Iraq

Salam Fadhel Ali

pp. 135 - 155   |  DOI: 10.29329/babir.2020.244.9


Agricultural industries are considered a cornerstone of industrial progress and achieving the well-being of the individual in countries of agricultural nature through its positive impact on food security and reducing dependence on imports as well as reducing poverty, that the labor intensity that characterizes these industries contributes to providing job opportunities and creating income-generating activities In rural areas with high levels of poverty and unemployment, as well as the direct contribution of agricultural industries to building other industrial sectors of the countries. The research problem is centered on the low level of the agricultural industrial sector and the small size of enterprises, as the agricultural industry in Iraq is described by its small-sized enterprises, as it reached (96.4%) for the year 2019 and its weak contribution to the local product and its repercussions at the level of the individual, society and the overall economy. The large number of its facilities and workers there, and there are possibilities for the development of that industry in Iraq to become a leader in the industrial sector in the local economy. The control of Baghdad Governorate on agricultural industries came first in the number of establishments and employees at a percentage (38,14%). The economic, productive and social value in the agricultural industrial establishments should focus on the level of the provinces of Iraq was in the food and beverage industry, which makes it one of the foremost industries able to contribute to the gross domestic product. The rest of the industries got low ranks in the degrees of differentiation in the study area, which was reflected in their low response to achieve the operational and economic efficiency of these industries. This decline is due to the decline in these industries due to their weak ability to compete with cheap foreign goods. The study recommends that investment in industrial projects whose products require the use of agricultural raw materials with a view to raising the efficiency and improving the level of industrial production and its quality be encouraged, taking advantage of the experience of industrial endemic agricultural activities and circulating them to other governorates in which rates of employee wages and added value in their industrial facilities are low.

Keywords: Agricultural industries, economic efficiency, spatial trends.

The Effect Of Cooparative Learning Among Second Grade Student Is Average, And Its Effeect On Academic Achievement

Maysoon Kamal Jalal

pp. 156 - 174   |  DOI: 10.29329/babir.2020.244.10


Collaborative learning is one of the modern means, and it is considered one of the modern teaching methods after the old methods and teaching methods were unable to provide assistance to both the teacher and the student at the same time. Cooperative learning is a modern method of learning that departs in its style from traditional methods, such as board and chalk, as it uses the method of sharing between Students in the discussion sit in a circle, and each student presents his ideas and a view to everyone so that everyone can benefit from each other in thinking and reaching solutions. A point of view for everyone so that everyone benefits from the other in thinking and reaching solutions. The reasons for using cooperative learning and its application in our classes lie to the importance and benefits that cooperative learning achieves in achieving the best learning in the shortest way and can be summarized in the research .In the first chapter, the research touched on the importance of cooperative learning and its compatibility with the learning requirements of both parties of the student, as well as the teacher and its definitions and goals. As for the second chapter, it touched on the benefits of cooperative learning, as well as its characteristics and types, the reasons for cooperative learning, the conditions for cooperative learning as well as the principles and foundations of cooperative learning, and the researcher talked about the method of cooperative learning and emphasized the reasons for wasting opportunities to benefit from the work force of groups in schools and stressed the search for the extent to which It makes cooperative work a successful work and what are its elements, and the research emphasized the opportunities for learning that are unique to cooperative learning, and the difference between cooperative learning and teamwork, And its multiple forms and types and the role of the teacher in cooperative learning and the difference between modern cooperative learning and old cooperative learning. As for the research sample, it consisted of middle and second grade middle school students in the Tigris secondary school for girls affiliated to the General Directorate of Education in Baghdad / Karkh first from the Ghazaliya region and the school was chosen from several schools and choosing Three people from the second and third grades are average out of five people. As for the research tool, a test has been prepared that aims to measure the achievement of second-grade students in the mathematics subject after applying the independent variables in the three groups. After that, the levels measured by this test were determined by Bloom levels [knowledge - understanding - application] and the absence of tests It is codified in this reliable field. The researcher prepared a test for this purpose. In order to investigate the validity of the test, the researcher used A. Al-Dhahri B The content is sincere, and paragraphs were formulated with (50) test items and tested from the type of test multiple and this type of tests is characterized by a very difficult in the construction is very important, but it reduces the chances of guessing that there are four alternatives, three of which are wrong and only one right alternative. Therefore, the research objectives are:

The main objective of this study is to know the effect of cooperative learning as a modern method of teaching and its role in students' interaction and raising their achievements in the classroom to serve the educational science.

Keywords: Cooperative learning, Knowledge, Bloom levels.

Creating Weighted Score For Estimating Of Interaction's Levels Occurred By Criterions And Specifications Of Examining Questions With Their Different Types

Nahla Hafidh Jawad

pp. 175 - 193   |  DOI: 10.29329/babir.2020.244.11


The aim of the research was to introduce a weighted scale to estimate the level of interaction of the (Common Variation) among the criteria and specifications of the examination questions and their well-known types, and to estimate the Eigen values of extracted factors by weighting their components. This was achieved in the light of applying factor analysis using principle components method, and accordance of (Self Consistency) by Al-Naqeeb criterion in order to be ensure obtaining a matrix of factors with a simple structure that will be subsequently adopted in the marketing of the weighted scale, whether at the level of the factors extracted or at the level of components of those factors as well.

Keywords: Kiser Criterion, Al Naqeeb Self-Consistency, Specifications of Examining Questions, Different Types of Examining Questions.

Legal Protection Of The Fetus' Right To Life In Statutory Legislation

Awan Abdullah Mhmood Alfaithy

pp. 194 - 213   |  DOI: 10.29329/babir.2020.244.12


Our study acquires special importance because the fetus’s right to life is the first right for it with which all other rights begin. When it exists, the rest of the rights apply and when it ends, the other rights are absent, as it revolves with it existence and non-existence, and the right to life appears to be its right on the surface, but it is in The truth is a grant from God Almighty, the Creator, and he has no one or any merit in finding it. For this importance which we have indicated and to complete the issue and because self-preservation is one of the purposes of Islam, it is considered one of the five essential essentials and fundamentalities because it relates to the person’s existence, so laws, whether at the international external level or at the national internal level, have shown rules that commit to legal protection of this right and the preservation of the fetus And care and not to drop it, and penalties have been set for killing him in the womb of the mother, whether by the action of the pregnant mother and her consent or by the will of others deliberately without her consent, as the right of the fetus to life is not one of the rights that the mother has the right to waive, as well as a pure right for the fetus in a future life, and society also The right to guarantee themselves the means of reproduction and preservation of offspring naturally. Therefore, the study aims to eliminate problems and answer questions, the source of which is a set of hypotheses, the most prominent of which is: Does the fetus actually have rights, and does it have a right to life, and what is the legal protection of this right, and does the fetus’s right to life belong to its parents or the community that it disposes of, and what is meant The right of the fetus to life in positive laws and international agreements, and what are the penalties for violating this right? .. Depending on this deductive analytical approach, and the comparative approach by comparing some international legislation such as the Universal Declaration and the Islamic Declaration of Human Rights and positive laws, as well as the curriculum an applied which promotes legislative and doctrinal positions of judicial judgments applied Arab courts.

Keywords: Protection, Right, Fetus, Life, Legislation.

The Fabricated Hadiths And The Harmful Of Spreading Them On Social Media

Najlaa Suwaid Ibrahim Salih Alsammari

pp. 214 - 231   |  DOI: 10.29329/babir.2020.244.13


The importance of the research is illustrated by his study of a serious problem facing the Islamic community in our time due to the scientific development and modern technology, the large number of social networking sites and the rapid spread of news among many numbers of people. And due to the ignorance of some Muslims in the Sunnah of the Prophet, and the fact that it is the second source of Islamic law, and their duty to investigate and annihilate it, they have deliberated among themselves false fabricated hadiths attributed to the Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings of God be upon him, and his family, and they calculate the work of charity in that their subjects urge to do good. Wages and gross reward are really easy. The research aims to address this problem by intimidating people from lying to the Messenger of God, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him and his family, and clarifying his prohibition and the punishment of his perpetrator, and the seriousness of this in spoiling the Muslim belief and introducing provisions on Islamic law that are not from them. And by explaining that it is necessary to investigate the authenticity of the hadeeths before resuming them to any person, because the sender is a participant of the one who puts them in the necessity of deserving the sin shown. It divided the research into three topics, the first topic and clarified the meaning of the subject matter, its ruling, and the reasons for the situation. And the second topic showed the categories of the men of whom the hadiths are not taken, and the methods of knowing the subject matter. The third topic mentioned the study of some of the common hadiths placed on social networking sites to show that they are placed and are not valid attributed to the Prophet, peace and blessings of God be upon him and his family, and concluded with a conclusion that showed the most important results and recommendations reached.

Keywords: Fabricated hadiths, Social media, Scientific development

The Words Of The Elements Of The Earthly And Heavenly Nature In The Shrines Of Al-Hariri (T 504 H) And Al-Zamakhshari (T 546 H) As An Example. Study In Light Of Semantic Fields Theory

Sadeer Husam Kareem Aiqisi

pp. 232 - 255   |  DOI: 10.29329/babir.2020.244.14


The theory of semantic fields is considered among the semantic theories that have reached an important interest in the study of meaning, because this theory is of great importance in modern semantics, especially in highlighting the precise meaning of the word, and research in semantics or research in semantics is one of the most important branches of the lesson The tongue stands out, and I have chosen the Maqamat as an applied text of the theory, because it contains abundant linguistic material makes the lesson of greater scientific benefit, and what these Maqam provide us with pictures of the reality of social and natural life in the sixth century AH (500-590 AH) Especially when the case Riri (504 e) and al-Zamakhshari (d. 538 e) in the second Abbasid civilization, and the study studied the relationships formed by semantic fields theory as the relationship of inclusion, tandem, contrast, and repulsion and is also called (variance), and the most important thing that happened in this research is: The semantic study The meanings of the denominations indicate that there are various relationships in the single semantic field, and the most common relationship between the expressions is the relationship of partial and inclusive syntax, and there is no complete synonymity between their words, and our research will shed light on a side of the words of the elements of the earthly and heavenly nature; Different times, detect th Threads formed to nourish the fields in a table Threads at other times..

Keywords: Parameters, Nature elements,Maqamat, semantic Fields theory.

The Utilization Level of Teachers From Courses of Profession of Teaching

Ferit Gülhan & Gökhan Demirhan

pp. 256 - 275   |  DOI: 10.29329/babir.2020.244.15


This study aims to explain the utilization level of teachers from Courses  of  Profession  of  Teaching In the research, quantitive method was used. The research population consists of  1313 Turkish, Primary Mathemathic, Science and Technology, Classroom and Preschool teachers working in primary, secondary and high schools in center of Uşak province in 2019-2020 academic years. The sample of the study consists of 350 teachers working in the center of Uşak. ‘Eveluation Questionnaire Of Courses of Profession of Teaching  which was originally developed by Kahramanoğlu (2010) to determine the utilization level of teachers from CPT was used.

As a result of the study, it was found that the gender variable had a significant difference  in support of women and the branch variable had a significant difference  in support of preschool teachers in the utilization level of teachers from CPT.It was concluded that teachers' opinions about utilization level of teachers from CPT did not make a significant difference in terms of  seniortiy, the university which was graduated and the type of getting pegagogical formation.

Keywords: Courses of Profession of Teaching, Utilization Level

An Assessment of François Rabelais’ Work Called Gargantua Within The Frame of the Idea of “Literature as a Period Language”

Necmiye Ayşim Parlakyıldız

pp. 276 - 282   |  DOI: 10.29329/babir.2020.244.16


When the literature is taken in consideration as “a period language”, a lot of literary works will be approved as the witnesses of the periods when they are written. Because, in this case, the literature will match up with either cultural forms or all perspectives of the idea of a period. In this regard, the work called Gargantua of François Rabelais who is one of the authors of French literature in 16th century thoroughly deserves to be a witness of the period above-mentioned. As is known, the Renaissance is “the rebirth” in the full sense of the word. When the 16th century is evaluated as “an oppositeness” or “a stance against” to the 15th century which is called Middle Ages, Gargantua which is a symbolic work will be deciphered by itself. This literary work which is one of the finest examples of the reflection of modern nature and human design to the literature is like a brief summary of 16th century, that is, that of the Renaissance. Also, this work that appears as a product of a consciousness which identifies itself with the concept of “homo faber” that in contrast to Ancient Greece, expresses human profile who does not observe but operates may be evaluated as a brief summary of the things that Humanist movement which makes its mark in the period tries to explain. In this sense, when this work is totally analyzed, it can be said that it properly supports the idea of “the literature as a period language”.

Keywords: Modern nature and human design, period language, François Rabelais, Gargantua.