Babir Journal   |  e-ISSN: 2687-4881

Volume 1 Issue 1 (January 2019)

Original articles

The Tu-Yu-Hun Tribe From Northern Tibetan Trıbes and on the Words “Tuyugun - Tuyugut” in the Kul Tigin Inscription

Adem Aydemir

pp. 1 - 13   |  DOI: 10.29329/babir.2019.183.1


Göktürk Inscriptions have a crucial importance not only for the Turkish language and literature, but also for Turkish culture. There have been so many studies on Göktürk Inscriptions since its being read by Vilhelm Thomsen. The studies on reading and meaning that started with Thomsen and Radloff have been continuing to these days, self-contained text publications on the inscriptions have been done by domestic and foreign Turcologists, various reading and meaning trials have been done. With these studies so many issues in the inscriptions have been solved and continue. Especially, the meaning studies have a crucial importance from the point of revealing the richness of language’s meaning. Because, the diversity of notions that a word defines proves the language’s -the word belonging to- being ancient and deep rooted. The Tu-yu-hun tribe from Northern Tibetan Tribes are one tribe of the Mongol origin. It is believed that Turkish-Tu-yu-hun relations go far back in the history. Northern Tibetan history and culture is one of the important reference that could lead the deeper research about the Turkish history. However, there is no source available to prove the relation before the 7th Century. In this article especially, argue on the words ‘tuyugut’ in south-west side and ‘tuyugun’ in the north-east side of Kül Tigin inscription. Thus, this words written on the ‘tuyugut’ in south-west ide and ‘tuyugun’ in the north-east side of the Kül Tigin inscription is two of the words that is read and interpreted s differently by scholars who are experts in the field. This article; it is indicated that a connection between the words in Kül Tigin inscription with the name of Tu-yu-hun tribe from Northern Tibetan tribes will be established. In the evaluation and conclusion section; the determinations revealed through the study will be presented as articled. 

Keywords: Kül Tigin inscription, north-east side, south-west side, tuyugun, tuyugut, Tu-yu-hun tribe.

Analysis of Studies on Social Responsibility Based on Graduate Thesis

Cengiz Alper Karadağ

pp. 15 - 31   |  DOI: 10.29329/babir.2019.183.2


The aim of this research is to evaluate the thesis on social responsibility in education and theses on other disciplines in a comparative way and to set the principles that will guide social responsibility studies in Turkey and to make proposals for dissemination of social responsibility studies in educational field. Research is structured within the framework of qualitative research methods. The qualitative research methods used in the research were the technique of document review. The study group of the research consist of 343 theses carried out before on social responsibility in Turkey. All thesis related to the subject has been tried to be reached by not going to the sample determination method in the research. However, 144 dissertations that were not included in the scope of the research (restricted, identified as off topic or indexed in more than one subject area) were not included in the analysis process and 199 analyzes were performed. A "Thesis Review Form" was developed by the researcher in order to carry out a systematic examination of the theses in the working group. In the analysis of the data, the content analysis technique was adopted. According to the results of the research findings, the majority of theses made in the field of social responsibility in Turkey are at the graduate level. When the number of thesis made on social responsibility on the basis of fields is examined, most theses are in the field of management.It has been observed that It was not dealt with this issue until 1995 when the first study on social responsibility in the field of social responsibility was carried out, and then this topic wasn't discussed until 2000's. Theses are generally structured within the framework of quantitative research methods and techniques. When the study groups in which the theses were performed were examined, the theses in the field of education were seen to be carried out by students, whereas the theses outside the field of education were seen to be carried out by personnel / employee / manager or public/customer. When it is desired to create themes related to social responsibility topics, it has been observed that the main themes in the field of education are gathered in terms of gaining social responsibility behavior, relation of social responsibility behavior to various variables, opinion / attitude / perception related to social responsibility activities and factors affecting implementation / application of social responsibility. It is possible to say that the main themes that are formed based on the thesis based on the fields outside the field of education are the opinions / perception / attitude related to social responsibility activities, the institutional / individual effects of social responsibility activities, examination of various applications of social responsibility applications, evaluation of their activities, factors affecting the undertaking of social responsibility activities, and a model of social responsibility model.

Keywords: Social responsibility, corporate social responsibility, social responsibilities of educational institutions

Strategic Partnerships: An Evaluation of The Role of Member State’s Dependence Level in the Formation of Alliances

Murad Duzcu

pp. 32 - 40   |  DOI: 10.29329/babir.2019.183.3


Historically, states have been motivated to protect themselves and ultimately embarked on security arrangements against a mutual adversary. Regardless of the reasons for defensive or aggressive pacts, the formation and internal consistency of an alliance have been a subject of considerable interest among the game theorists. This article examines the formation process of alliances in terms of game theory by evaluating the influence on the role of member states’ dependency level on an alliance. Drezner’s “conflict expectations model” is used in the theoretical framework of the article, which was determined by the formation of two separate game models in which states with or without a commitment to an alliance are the two players of the game. In the first model, the game ended in the status quo, the member state did not cooperate with the alliance, and therefore the game ended in a pure Nash equilibrium. In the second model, a utility function was added to change the vicious circle of the status quo, including the dependency of the member state to the alliance. As a result, when the function is included, the result of the game is different from the previous status quo. It is therefore argued that the dependence on alliance is related to the existence of bilateral relations of the states and consequently, their future expectations are a source of concern for relative gains. As dependency on an alliance increases, states will act in accordance with the second model, which will increase the likelihood of cooperation, rather than a concern for absolute gains as indicated in the first model.

Keywords: Social responsibility, corporate social responsibility, social responsibilities of educational institutions

Evaluation of Job Satisfaction and Burnout Levels of Teachers Teaching Turkish as a Foreign Language

Ethem Gürsoy & Fatih Kana

pp. 41 - 60   |  DOI: 10.29329/babir.2019.183.4


The aim of this research is to determine the job satisfaction levels and burnout levels of teachers who are involved in teaching Turkish as a foreign language. For this purpose, the job satisfaction and burnout levels of the teachers working in the teaching of Turkish as a foreign language will be examined and evaluated according to the variables of gender, age, marital status. In the research, “Exploratory Correlation Model which is among the correlational research types is used. This model has been selected to analyze the relationships between variables and to understand the effect of these variables on job satisfaction and burnout levels of teachers. The sample of the study consists of 115 teachers working in various institutions and teaching Turkish as a foreign language. 11-item personal information form and Minnesota Job Satisfaction scale with Maslach Burnout level scale were used in the study. The analysis of the quantitative data of the study was made by using SPSS 21.0 statistical package program. The data of the study were analyzed by using Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis Test. It was determined that on the opinions of teachers working in Turkish teaching as a foreign language; age, occupational choice, marital status, gender, workplace variables were not found to show a statistically significant difference. It was determined that on the opinions of teachers working in Turkish teaching as a foreign language; there is a statistically significant difference between the variables of seniority and income level in terms of external satisfaction points. It was determined that on the opinions of teachers working in Turkish teaching as a foreign language; there is a statistically significant difference in terms of total satisfaction and burnout level in the facilities and educational status in the institution.

Keywords: Job satisfaction, burnout, teaching Turkish as a foreign language

The Effectiveness of K.W.L Strategy in the Achievement and Reflective Thinking in Chemistry For Second Grade Students Average

Mundhir Mubadar Abdul Karim Al Abbasi & M. Najat Hamdi Abdullah Al-Jubouri

pp. 61 - 83   |  DOI: 10.29329/babir.2019.183.5


The current research aims to know the effect of the effectiveness of K.W.L Strategy in the Achievement and reflective thinking in chemistry for second grade students at middle and through the verification of hypotheses Elsafreeten following cases:                                                                                  

1-There is no difference statistically significant at the level (0.50) between the average scores of the experimental group And taught according to K.W.L Strategy and an average degree of control group and taught according to the traditional way in the Achievement of chemistry second grade average.                                                                                          

2- There is no difference statistically significant at the level (0.50) between the ability of students in the experimental group and control group on reflective thinking. Choice of experimental design with a partial control groups (experimental and control) that control each other. Number of the respondents (50), a student at the Haiy Al-Mualmen High School for boys, represented the experimental group (25 students) and taught according to the K.W.L Strategy, and (25) students studying in -accordance with the normal way. The two groups of equal Search variables(intelligence test- Age-pre- scores) Promising achievement of an objective multiple choice test consisting of four alternatives (20) items Verified virtual test sincerity of submitting it to the experts and arbitrators in the field of education and teaching methods and evaluation and measurement The sincerity of content through the preparation of the map test was bringing stability account (84%) were difficult to find and the ease and effectiveness of alternatives to the paragraphs of the test plants. To investigate, the second goal of the search was adopted Isik scale and Wilson speculative to think with the amendment of some paragraphs Statistics regarding the educational content W.K.L strategy and content to be explained Ensure that the scale (30), paragraph three alternatives (Awavq- not Awavq- I do not know) were checking the veracity of the scale submitting it to the experts and arbitrators in the field of education and teaching methods and evaluation and measurement was stability coefficient was calculated as the amount (83%). Data processing has statistically " using the t-Test, and the results showed superiority of the experimental group that studied according to the K.W.L Strategy to the control group, who studied in accordance with the normal way of thinking and achievement test contemplative. Thus, the researchers recommend using of K.W.L Strategy in the teaching of science and suggest further studies of the different stages of material


The Efficiency of Women is the Framework in Algerian Society A field study in Sonatrach "Aval" in Oran

Belhaj Wassila & Belaid Mahdi

pp. 84 - 110   |  DOI: 10.29329/babir.2019.183.6


The leading woman's ability is shown by  reaching and controlling  high ranks and positions in the professional field and breaking in the professions . This was called by Maslo in his theory for needs  " self-realization " where it  needs high skills and qualities . This high rank was gradually reached by women in general, especially, the Algerian woman. The censuses carried out in 1975 showed the development in the woman's work from 4.3 %  to 16 %  in 1999 . In about 24 years, the woman occupied about 1/4 of the men's opportunities after the suffering and marginalization which she has been exposed to . Despite the negative acceptance from the Algerian society which was controlled by men and the weakness of the feminist frames where the woman's work was controlled by traditional principles in the Algerian society . The Algerian sociologist ; Jemal Graid says : " The woman outdoors should respect some conditions which are defined by the local society which normally authorizes political and cultural opinions . These conditions organize the woman's work outdoors." This happened previously and began to decrease gradually . Also , the woman has begun to obtain economical independence which has provided her self-content and educationally effective participation in terms of the economical development indoors and outdoors . In addition , she has been  able to achieve psychological relief and social status besides the fulfillment of the woman's independence and her ability to participate economically with the man to cover the cost of life . The development of any society is subject to the contributions  of  both genders . The Algerian sociologist ; Sharifa Deeb Marouf stated and confirmed that women invest their wages in fulfilling the economical needs of the family and its development . Through our intervention , we try to provide a real experience about the competence of the leading woman in the Algerian society by carrying out our field study on this distinct section in our society and her contribution in the fulfillment of economical development.

Keywords: The leading woman ,The professional competence ,The economical development ,The status of the leading woman ,The woman and making decisions

Security Strategy and Intelligence Fiqh in the Light of Life of the Prophet

Mohamed Kalou

pp. 111 - 134   |  DOI: 10.29329/babir.2019.183.7


Gathering intelligence is the first act of human kind. Humans searched for knowledge of the available place of water and to continue his/her life. After humans started living in communities they sent people to collect intelligence about neighboring communities in order to find out their way of living, to protect themselves, or to attack them or to make alliance with them. The fiqh of intelligence in Islam is old as itself since it appeared with the start of Islam. Islam was born in secrecy then the Prophet (pbuh) developed innovative ways unknown to Arabs at that time through strategic security planning. These innovative ways served the security of the state and surprised the enemy by sending written letters and digging ditches which destroyed their morale. The life of the Prophet (pbuh) shows that Islam emphasized the security area with moral values and ethics since the security ensures that people are in peace with their religions, lives, possessions and dignities. The intelligence service is a legal means to monitor the movements of the enemy and find out its plans and make them unsuccessful.

Keywords: Intelligence fiqh, security strategy, written letters, security planning, innovative methods